三苏祠与三苏

    三苏祠位于四川省眉山市城西,是我国著名文学家苏洵、苏轼、苏辙的故居,原为约五亩的庭院,元代改宅为祠,明末毁于兵燹,清康熙四年(1665)在原址模拟重建。现成为占地104亩的古典园林。庭院红墙环抱,绿水萦绕,古木扶疏,翠竹掩映,形成三分水二分竹的岛居特色。楼台亭榭,古朴典雅;匾额对联,词意隽永。
    祠内有苏洵、苏轼、苏辙和程夫人、任采莲、苏八娘(苏小妹)、王弗、王闰之、王朝云、史夫人及苏家六公子等十余人的塑像;有木假山堂、古井、洗砚池等苏家遗迹;珍藏和陈列着五千余件有关三苏的文献和文物,是蜀中最负盛名的人文景观。
    三苏祠的三苏纪念馆是国内展示三苏文化最丰富、展陈面积最大,展陈方式最多,展出水平最高的场所。
    苏洵(1009——1066),字明允,号老泉。青少年时好交游,二十七岁始发奋攻读,不仅精通“六经”百家之说,而且下笔能写好文章。其《权书》、《衡论》、《机策》等二十二篇政论文,深得翰林学士欧阳修、宰相韩琦和仁宗皇帝的赏识而被破格录用,为皇帝修礼书《太常因革礼》。治平三年病逝京师,安葬于眉山县安镇乡可龙里(今东坡区土地乡公益村)。后追谥为“文安公”。著有《嘉祐集》、《易传》等。苏洵为一代文章宗师,与其子苏轼、苏辙同列“唐宋八大家”。
    苏轼(1037——1101),字子瞻,号东坡居士。嘉祐二年(1057)进士及第,后与弟苏辙参加了秘阁的制科考试,入三等(宋王朝入三等的仅四人)。从此,苏轼文章名扬天下,学者多从讲问,仁宗皇帝还自诩为子孙得了两个宰相。他官至翰林学士,龙图阁学士、端明殿侍读学士,为朝廷起草文诰,给皇帝讲学;做过兵部和礼部尚书,先后出任凤翔、杭州、密州、湖州、徐州、颖州、登州、扬州、定州等地地方官,他发展生产、救灾治水、抑制豪强、整顿军纪,为官一任、造福一方,以其卓著的政绩惠及后人,彪炳史册。凡苏轼当过官、居住过的地方,后人或立生祠、或修楼台祭祀、纪念他,全国至今仍保留着无数东坡遗迹、祠堂、纪念馆等。这在中国历史上是非常罕见的。
    苏轼在政治上既反对王安石的“激进变法”,又反对司马光“尽废新法”,处于新旧两党的夹击中,一生屡遭打击、坎坷曲折,但他胸襟旷达、随缘自适、爱国爱民、倔强豪放、至死不衰,对人生始终保持着乐观豁达的心态和积极向上的追求,其精神至今还影响着我们生生不息的文化创造和传承。
    苏轼是我国文学史上罕见的天才全能作家,其散文为北宋古文运动的最高成就,诗史称“苏诗”,代表宋诗的最高水平;词称“苏词”,开创了中国豪放词风;他创造了新一代文赋;开创了明清小品文的先河;其书法创立了“尚意”书风,史称“苏字”,居宋代四大书法家之首;他是中国“文人画”的创导者,其著名的绘画理论如“胸有成竹”、“贵在神似”等等影响了一代又一代的艺术家,他在水利、医学、音乐、养生等领域亦著述颇丰,创造极广。苏氏的影响早已跨越时空,跨越地域,成为中国文人的杰出代表。
    苏轼晚年被贬广东惠州,海南儋州(今海南儋县)。元符三年遇赦北还,病逝于常州,安葬于河南郏县小峨眉山,后追谥为“文忠公”。
    苏辙(1039——1112),字子由,号颖滨遗老。苏轼之弟,十九岁与兄同科进士,入制策四等。官至翰林学士、知制诰、尚书右丞、门下侍郎(副宰相)。因与王安石政见不和以及统治集团内部争权夺利的倾轧,他的仕途崎岖曲折,屡遭打击。宋徽宗政和二年,苏辙病故,与兄同葬一地。后追谥为“文定公”。他学识渊博,著作颇丰,有《栾城集》、《栾城续集》、《栾城后集》等,“汪洋澹泊”是其文风特色。

about Sansu Shrine
Located in the west of Meishan city, Sansu Shrine is the former residence of the Chinese famous litterateurs of Su Xun, Su Shi and Su Zhe, and it is also the birth place of Su Shi and Su Zhe. The former residence of Su family is originally a courtyard of 5 mu (a unit of area). In Yuan Dynasty, the courtyard was constructed as an ancestral temple, which was later destroyed in war at the end of Ming Dynasty. In the fourth year of Kangxi (1665 A.D.) in Qing Dynasty, an similar temple was reconstructed at the former address. Afterwards, in the following dynasties the temple has experienced expansion and rebuilding through repair, amendment and supplement. Until now it has become a classical landscaping garden covering nearly 104 mu. The curtilage of Sansu Memorial Temple is red-wall encircled with clean water hovering, age-old tree flourishing, green bamboo covering, which has given the life here a feature of island quiet in the environment of water and bamboo. The pavilions, terraces and towers here are of primitive simplicity and elegance; the meanings of art works on steles and couplets in temple are profound and lasting. In the memorial temple, apart from the statues of Su Xun, Su Shi and Su Zhe, more than ten statues are standing here including those of Mrs. Cheng, Womenfolk and the six Childes of Su family, etc. With regards to the relics of Su family house, only the Mujiashan Hall, the Ancient Well and the Ink-stone Washing Pool, etc. are left. Well-reserved antique buildings inside are the Qixian Hall, Laifeng Pavilion, Yunyu Building, Mo’s Works Cluster, Kuaiyu Pavilion, Pifeng Kiosk, Ruilian Pavilion, and so on. Su’s patriarchal clan, the sanctum of Su Shi and his brother, the original source of Su Ancestral Temple are also exhibited there. There are also stone tablets of inscriptions from Emperor Song-Xiao in Song Dynasty, Jiang Zhongzheng and Liu Xiang. In addition, forest of steles here boasts the max. quantity of original scripts by Su Shi in China. Within the Sansu Memorial Temple, more than five thousand of literature and cultural relics relating to the “Three Sus” (Su Shi, Su Xun and Su Zhe), are treasured up and displayed, which have already been widely recognized as the most famous human landscape in Sichuan and Chongqing.